I’ve been tasting a lot of black tea over the past couple of weeks but before I start talking TGFOP and BOP, I thought it would be worthwhile to have a reference article to go through one of the most common grading systems for black tea. The grading system has four separate scales that are based around the size of the leaf. Size is not directly correlated to quality but it is used as an indicator.
Whole leaf – the leaf remains intact during production (not broken or torn)
- SFTGFOP – Special, Fine Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe
- FTGFOP – Fine Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe
- TGFOP – Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe
- GFOP – Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe
- FOP – Flowery Orange Pekoe
- FP – Flowery Pekoe
- OP – Orange Pekoe
Broken leaf – the leaf has been torn or broken
- GFBOP – Golden Flowery Broken Orange Pekoe
- GBOP – Golden Broken Orange Pekoe
- FBOP – Flowery Broken Orange Pekoe
- BOP – Broken Orange Pekoe
- BPS – Broken Pekoe Souchong
Fannings are broken pieces of tea that have a granular texture. The small pieces mean that they release their taste and colour quickly, which makes them suitable for teabags.
- FBOPF – Flowery Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings
- BOPF – Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings
- FOF – Flowery Orange Fannings
- GOF – Golden Orange Fannings
- PF – Pekoe Fannings
Dust is a powder tea that is smaller in size than fannings.
- OPD – Orange Pekoe Dust
- BOPD – Broken Orange Pekoe Dust
- PD – Pekoe Dust
- D – Dust
CTC stands for Crush Tear Curl and is a modern manufacturing method where the tea leaf is chopped to small uniform pieces while it is being oxidised to black tea. This gives small granular pellets. There is a separate grading system for CTC tea that is also broken down into Broken Leaf, Fannings and Dust.
A few notes on the terms:
Orange – Orange does not refer to the citrus fruit or to an orange flavour. It comes from “House of Orange” which was the royal Dutch family where the finest teas were presented in the 1600s.
Tippy refers to the proportion of buds in the tea
Flowery mean that larger leaves as well as buds are present