I decided yesterday to taste two Japanese green teas together so I could compare them side by side. The first tea, a Sencha, is the most common type of Japanese Green Tea and would be drank on a daily basis in most Japanese homes. Sencha is harvested in the Spring from the upper leaves of the tea plant that have been in direct sunlight.
The second tea, a Bancha, is also a common every-day tea in Japanese homes. It is made from later harvests of the tea plant or from the lower leaves and stems. It is therefore a coarser tea and it is considered to be a lower quality and less expensive tea than Sencha.
Although Sencha means roasted tea, both Sencha and Bancha are steamed and rolled soon after harvesting. The difference between the two teas is the quality of the leaves used. Where Bancha has come from lower, older leaves it will have less caffeine and less catechin (antioxidant) than sencha. However, where Bancha has come from a later harvest of upper leaves, it could have more catechins. Below is a short video from My Japanese Green Tea of the steaming, drying and rolling process at a Sencha plant
Sencha is considered a fussy tea in terms of preparation. While Bancha is can be prepared with boiling water for 30 seconds, boiling water on Sencha will bring out the bitterness and kill the flavor so Sencha needs a water temperature of ~80°C and a longer brewing time. For my comparison experiment, I decided to brew them both at 80°C for 2 minutes. If you don’t have a thermometer or a thermostatic kettle (I used my new Breville!), you can guess 80°C by waiting for small bubbles to appear on the inside of the kettle. The bubbles need to be the size of shrimp’s eyes as opposed to crab eyes (85°C) or fish eyes (90°C)!
Looking at the dry leaf, both are flat leaf, emerald green. From the pictures below you can see that the Bancha includes stems. It probably isn’t obvious from the photos but it is clear when you have the leaves in front of you that the Bancha is also less regular and is more dusty. The Sencha has a deep musky aroma with some sweetness while the Bancha is more grassy with a malty sweetness.
To prepare these teas, I put 3g of tea in a warmed ceramic teapot and add 150ml of water at ~80°C. I steep for 2 minutes. Both give a yellow/green liquor and both are cloudy but the Bancha is noticeably more cloudy. The taste of the Sencha is bright and grassy with a background meaty taste (unami). There is a sweetness at the start that is matched by a bitterness and astringency that comes out later. The Bancha is grassy and malty sweet with less of the meaty flavor and noticeably less astringency. Both are light and refreshing but I would describe the Bancha as milder, gentler green tea.
I combined each with a small pinch of salt beforehand to see how it brings out the sweetness. For the Sencha it mutes the astringency and gives a rounder flavor but I didn’t notice a big difference with the Bancha. Both of these were samples so I don’t know the price but one of my local tea houses has a Sencha for €11/100g and a Bancha for half of that (€5/100g).